Staff Skills

Looking at the Military Appreciation Process

By Douglas Clark April 14, 2020

The Military Appreciation Process (MAP) evokes different feelings in people; to some it is an unwieldy beast that strikes fear into their hearts, to others it is the indisputable foundations for all military planning.

When Douglas Clark began research into the MAP for a staff college paper, he hoped the audience could be wider than just the instructor. So, he decided put his research into a short video to show to trainees on the All Corps Major Course. 

The result is a short but very informative video that examines the MAP and gives some good advice to those who use it on why it's an important part of military planning.




References (Used in making the video)


Bryant, D. J., Martin, L. B., Bandali, F., Rehak, L., Vokac, R., & Lamoureux, T. (2007). Development and Evaluation of an Intuitive Operational Planning Process. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1(4), 434–460.

Gigerenzer, G., & Goldstein, D. G. (1996). Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality. Psychological Review, 103(4), 650–669.

Hoskin, R., & Land Warfare Studies Centre (Australia). (2009). The ghost in the machine : better application of human factors to enhance the military appreciation process. Land Warfare Studies Centre.

Klein, G. (1992). Decision making in complex military environments. Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates Inc. Prepared under contract N66001-90-C-6023 for the Naval Command, Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA.

Klein, G., Wolf, S., Militello, L., & Zsambok, C. (1995). Characteristics of Skilled Option Generation in Chess. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62(1), 63–69.

Klein, G & Anderson, J (1997). An Overview of Naturalistic Decision Making Applications, Naturalistic Decision Making. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. pp. 49-59.

Klein, G. (1998). Critical Indicators in Naturalistic Decision Making. Fourth Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making.

Lipshitz, R., Klein, G., Orasanu, J., & Salas, E. (2001). Taking stock of naturalistic decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 14(5), 331–352.

Roth, E. (2009). “Analysis of Decision Making in Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies: An Investigation of Aided Decision Making. In Zsambok, C. & Klein, G. A. (Eds) (2009). Naturalistic decision making (pp. 175–182). Routledge.

Shortland, N., Alison, L., & Barrett-Pink, C. (2018). Military (in)decision-making process: a psychological framework to examine decision inertia in military operations. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 19(6), 752–772.



Douglas Clark

Douglas Clark is an infantry officer with the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry currently on exchange with the Land Warfare Centre, Officer’s Training Wing. He has command, staff, and operational experience within the Canadian Armed Forces.


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of the Australian Army, the Department of Defence or the Australian Government.

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