What are the Physical Requirements of the Modern Battlefield?

By Calen Thomas August 5, 2020

Physicality has always been an enduring feature of warfare. This has been a truism since Cain first picked up a rock to strike Abel, all the way through to the accounts written here detailing incidents of hand to hand combat in Afghanistan and Iraq. While it is without doubt that the battlefield has seen some radical changes in the last 100 or even 50 years, it appears that a physically fit and robust force will still remain an important feature of the future.

So what are the physical demands of the 21st century battle space, and how do we as a modern professional army ensure that our training is specific and relevant to the job we do? Do these answers differ for those taking the fight to the enemy in close quarters urban assaults, against those operating in a high tempo third-line logistics unit undertaking demanding cognitive and physical tasks under cumulative fatigue and sleep deprivation common on operational deployments?  In this series of blog posts I, and my fitness colleagues, hope to explore this complex but fundamental challenge.


Selection and maintenance of the aim is as important for effective strength and conditioning as it is for war in general; so what are the core physical requirements of the modern battlefield, and how should we be preparing our soldiers for this? Those interested in the physical requirements for the modern warfighter should read Kramer et al.  This well-researched paper breaks down the physical requirements of the modern battle space, and the training focus required in order to prepare soldiers for this environment. It outlines a modern battlefield, which arguably requires individuals to have 4 key fitness traits, outlined below:

  1. Baseline strength. 
  2. Power.
  3. Anaerobic capacity.
  4. External Load Carriage (ELC) & muscular endurance.

Kramer et al's paper is also interesting as it puts in a strong argument against the need for extensive aerobic fitness, or long slow distance training (LSD). I agree with this. It is incredibly rare that you will find an instance of a soldier undertaking any activity resembling low-medium intensity running for long durations in any stage of operations. Without even touching on the injury prevention argument here, this fact alone is enough to warrant a hard look at what is potentially the most common form of 'PT run' in the barracks environment. This is certainly not an argument against running, but rather the intensity and goals of the running session conducted. The argument against LSD training aside, I believe that Army still could benefit from an increased focus on basic strength training. As the studies below show, even elite endurance athletes have gained benefits through additional strength training:

In the end the essence of professional strength and conditioning is to prepare the individual for a high level of performance specific to the demands of their job. General fitness, a non- specific 'smash' session or a run along the river next to the barracks can all be helpful (written and delivered by anyone): the mark of professionalism, however, is evidence based, specific, and safe training that meets the specific needs of the environment.

The Second and Third Order Effects on Organisational Resilience

Physical fitness has obvious first order effects on the ability of an Army to do its core job. Take, for example, acquiring a target and shooting it (and avoiding being shot). Research by Billing et al and Frykman et al respectively found that a poor physical capacity to carry heavy loads makes a soldier more vulnerable to enemy fire, and less able to acquire targets and accurately engage them. There are also, however, deeper second and third order threats that poor physicality poses to an organisation; a lack of fitness (for example) increases the burden on service healthcare systems, and also the services which provide care and funding for retired service members healthcare. Fitness is intrinsically linked to organisational resilience. Physical conditioning can be a powerful tool for not only producing first-class soldiers, but also for reducing organisation healthcare burden and costs. For those interested in this, the following articles are studies on strength and resistance training, high-stress workplaces and resilience:

Conclusion - What to Do Next?

Army offers a unique cultural environment for effective training: a willing (and captive) audience who undergo inculcation through defined points of entry and who do not have to pay for training undertaken. This provides us with an incredible opportunity to apply high-performance techniques to develop a workforce who is prepared for the task. A strong start has already been made in this direction with the injection of funding and strength based training at Kapooka, as well as some fantastic work being done by CPL Nicolson for 8/9 RAR in Brisbane, but I believe it is a cultural change that needs to spread throughout Forces Command and to the bulk of where our people are.

So what should we do about this complex problem, involving time, expertise and funding gaps? I will propose a few of my thoughts on the issue in the next blog on the Cove, and will look forward to the ideas of other like-minded professionals out there.




Calen Thomas

Calen Thomas has a Bachelor of Physiotherapy and Applied Science (Human Movement Studies) with Honours, majoring in Exercise Science. Before joining Army in 2015 he worked in a strength and conditioning role with the Queensland Reds and Australian Rugby Union Academy as we as in a sports trainer role with South’s Rugby Union (Brisbane). Calen is a keen advocate of rehabilitation and return to high performance activity, and the modernisation of Army physical training.


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of the Australian Army, the Department of Defence or the Australian Government.


Definitely all accurate and fair points. This research has been around for a lot time but Army only seems to be just catching up now. Starting this training as early as Kapooka is great but we're still feeling the effects of not having a higher standard of fitness required to graduate training. Therefore the burden on units and the defence health system is not going to change any time soon without real change to how we define a fit and capable soldier. We are seeing recruits with fitness deficiencies pushed onto the schools to make up said deficiency. The schools don't have the time to do this so they have to push it onto units.

How would you approach the limited ability to maintain a long range strength & conditioning program in a high tempo unit at one of the BDE's? The challenge seems to me, to be that with field, courses, leave and general battle rhythm disruptions it is hard to maintain a group PT program that moves past a basic level. At any one time you will be dealing with a portion of the sub unit that is not conditioned to the percentage load (or whatever progression metric you are using). I feel like this is the reason (combined with expertise/equiptment shortages) that is is seen to be easier to do the classic bodyweight circuit/ long slow distance. I wrote a paper on this topic a few years ago, I can try to dig it up if anybody is interested.

My advice: Do not treat soldiers like professional athletes. In my opinion your emphasis on strength only correlates with (but does not CAUSE) performance improvements. If i were in your position i would think more like a physio than a strength coach. Ie: Thoracic and lumbar stability and functionality for improved load carrying performance. Pelvic/hip Gait functionality through correct running mechanics to reduce lower limb joint imbalances. Agility/dexterity drills to further protect ankles and knees. Going back to the thoracic - come up with some scapular exercises to protect the shoulders. As far as neural activation is concerned do sprints. 10m, 20m,30,40,60m This will take care of plyometric adaptation as well as rate of force development where it matters. Watch out for cns burnout. And lastly (cause i can go on forever) dont think of long slow running as a workout but as a form of recovery. Make it slow and relaxing. The slower the better. Focus on oxygenating the body as opposed to burning them out. There is also the issue of relaxation techniques, ie breathing techniques and bodywork. Hope this helps

Hi Cal - I agree with large parts of this article however disagree that the need for a sound aerobic base is basically redundant. I see a large part of the organisation unable to sustain a steady state for longer than 30mins (probably 20) due to our over reliance on high end anaerobic training. It is not running or aerobic training that increases the injury rate, but the poor application of its use. We saw this in the mid 90s when we removed the 5km run because running was causing so many injuries - yes it was, but because of a lack of patience to develop a sound base and the mentality of having to always be hard and fast to get results. The 2.4km has not IMO made a difference as now we can get away with 10-15 mins of high intensity and 'guts' our way through a test that when you break down the energy system usage, is in excess of 95% aerobic. I agree with the author that strength is a vital component, but we also see the same analogy as I have described above - lift heavy things fast and furious = shoulder and back injuries....not because of the system, but because of its poor application. We don't need an army of distance runners, but I would argue that a sound aerobic base is the foundation for everything we need from an RAINF soldier. The ability to keep going at a steady state, work at higher intensities for periods of time, move heavy objects and then be ready to go again....this does not happen with 6x 400s as your only running. Aerobic exercise does not cause injury....poor application and a lack of understanding of its use does. Fitness and a structured training program is a force multiplier and CFLs and PTIs are well placed to implement these. Ps - I enjoyed the read and it is great to see an article of this type. Happy to discuss my views further on fitness in the military. Thanks. Pps - the shift towards teaching sound lifting technique and strength training in training establishments is a positive one IMO.

How do I define correct mechanics for running? Basically running at varying intensities from say 30% to 95% intensity without getting injured. Kind of how i assume you would define correct squat mechanics or deadlift mechanics. Basically execute challenging lifts without injury. In order to achieve this you dont teach everyone to squat the same do you? Everyone will squat differently correct? So how do you improve mechanics? You address muscle imbalances. Make sure everything is firing correctly. I like the term "intramuscular coordination". Also, i never said strength was irrelevant. In fact i stated that it is correlated with improved performance but is not the cause of improved performance, and that is a fact. On movement variability: Are you familiar with the term "reconsolidation"?

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