This paper by Mathew Brooks titled 'Shooting Holes in Small Arms - A Terminal Effects Case Study' that small arms ammunition is fundamental to the generation of land combat power, and is also the primary enabler for the dismounted combatant.
The author informs us that as a result of some common misconceptions, terminal ballistics needs to be thoroughly reinvigorated to ensure we understand how small arms systems operate and therefore perform. He suggests that to defeat a target, 'there are a range of considerations including penetration, cavitation, accuracy and projectile design. Each of these elements attempt to explain how small arms munitions defeat a target. Each of these elements attempt to defeat, in the case of a human, one of three critical systems; the cerebral, the vascular or the skeletal.'
The paper provides us with a critical analysis of some of the more technical aspects of small arms testing, that are often glossed over by those not intimately involved in the study of ballistics. It concludes by suggesting that organisations such as Proof and Experimental Establishment - Graytown can facilitate small arms characterisation and assessment through the use of new technologies and test methods into the future. Considering the range of Land projects that are being delivered in the near future, a suite of new small arms tests are essential in delivering an enhanced capability.